Browse Exhibits (6 total)
The Aztecs first made guacamole prior to the 16th century. Early guacamole was made purely of avocado. The modern name derives from the Nahuati word, āhuacamolli. Āhuacamolli literally translates to “avocado sauce”. Guacamole became incredibly popular in Mesoamerican society because of the abnormal nutritional value of avocados. Avocados have a very high fat and protein content for a fruit. Diets in the society had a relatively low fat content and as such it became a vital element of the diet of the people native to its habitat. In addition, the Aztecs believed guacamole to be an aphrodisiac, further increasing its popularity. As Europeans arrived, they too enjoyed the dish even going as far as to attempt to replicate it with substitutes for the avocado. However, the substitutes failed to reach the same level of popularity, and European interest in the avocado grew dramatically.
Many of the staples of modern guacamole, including the avocado, the tomato, and onions are native to the Americas, and base of Guacamole dates back to the Aztecs’ consumption of mashed avocado, which began long before contact with Europeans. Despite these deep roots, however, the Columbian exchange provided new flavors to this traditional recipe. Ingredients commonly added to Guacamole today, such as garlic and cumin, came first from southern Asia to Europe, then to America through the Columbian exchange. The Persian lime, now a staple to many a guacamole recipe, originated in southern Asia, was produced in large scale in the Middle East, and reached Western Europe around the time of the crusades. Finally, in 1493, it was introduced to the Americas by Columbus on his second journey.
Despite its origins in Central America, guacamole has been assimilated into American culture. In fact, it is one of the most widely consumed products during the Super Bowl, one of the most significant events in contemporary American culture. This is impressive, especially given that the Super Bowl is not during the typical growing season of avocados, its primary ingredient. One of the main reasons for this rise in popularity is that a NAFTA agreement in the early 90s allowed for avocados to flow freely into the U.S. in the winter from Meso-American countries. by 2008, Mexico was the “largest supplier of avocados to the U.S” . This led to guacamole’s prominence in the United States. In this way, one can trace the route of guacamole’s history from the Aztecs to the Spaniards to modern-day Americans.
Our group wished to focus on a guacamole recipe that incorporated ingredients familiar to 21st century Americans. Everyone has her favorite type of guacamole: whether it’s from Chipotle, Estrellita’s, or her mother’s kitchen. Almost all guacamole recipes vary in one small unique way or another, but every familiar recipe contains a few necessary staples: a dash of lime to taste, onions, tomatoes, perhaps some chilies for spice, and of course, plenty of avocados. The recipe our group ultimately chose incorporates all of these elements, as well as ground cumin and cilantro leaves. By choosing a recipe that would resonate with all American guacamole-lovers, our readers can trace the now commonplace ingredients back to their origins. We recognize guacamole as a Mexican delicacy, but by researching each individual component of the dish we can pinpoint the specific countries and time period from which all of the ingredients came. This proves to be a fascinating study of the immense diversity found in one seemingly simple ethnic treat.
 Greenaway, Twilight. "How Did Avocados Become the Official Super Bowl Food?" Smithsonian. January 30, 2013. Accessed November 11, 2014.
The history of Hunkar Begendi, or "Sultan's Delight," dates back several centuries, though its origins are contested. The blog from which this specific recipe was ascertained offers two possible traditions explaining the recipe’s origins.
One popular historical tradition of Hunkar Begendi is that the dish was first created at the Topkapı Palace in Instanbul, for the Ottoman Sultan Murad IV (who reigned 1623-1640). The likelihood of this tradition can be analyzed by considering the availability of the ingredients found in the modern iteration of the traditional recipe [found below]. Sheep meat and dairy-propducts, as well as eggplant, have always been staples of Near Eastern and Islamic diets, and all three were featured considerably often in popular Medieval dishes. Tomatoes, however, did not enter Europe until the end of the sixteenth-century, and many scholars argue that they did not enter the Middle Eastern diet until the mid-nineteenth-century.
It is reasonable to suggest that, as part of the recipe’s transformation over time, culinary experiments with tomatoes sparked a change in regional tastes, and tomatoes subsequently entered the traditional recipe for Hunkar Begendi. Also possible is that the dish was originally prepared using the kavata, a rare, green variety of tomato that, according to a seventeenth-century account book, was regularly brought into the sultan’s private apartments for consumption. As this delicacy faded from elite Ottoman cuisine, it could have been replaced by the familiarnred tomato (solanum lycopersicum) in the nineteenth-century. A third possibility is that red tomatoes entered Istanbul earlier than many scholars think (as Melanie Sheehan suggests in her accompanying essay on the fruit) and were available to at least the Ottoman elite. Nevertheless, if Hunkar Begendi was indeed first served in the seventeenth-century, its flavors must have changed significantly over the past four centuries, according to the introduction of new ingredients, the vicissitudes of public tastes, and the varying accessibility of certain ingredients to different communities.
A second tradition of the recipe’s origin is based on a legend that Hunkar Begendi was first served at Beylerbeyi Palace in 1869, when Empress Eugenie of France visited the Ottoman Empire. She supposedly enjoyed the dish so much that she asked the Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz if her chef could be given the recipe, a wish the Ottoman chef was reluctant to grant .
The latter legend offers an interesting insight into the diplomatic world of 1869, just over ten years after the Ottoman Empire, allied with France and Britain, defeated Russia in the Crimean War . Now, Empress Eugenie was again concerned with “the Eastern question” , which referred to European fears about the dangerous implications of an Ottoman fall . Thus, throughout the nineteenth century, Napoleon III had actively intervened in Eastern affairs to limit the growth of Russian power, as is evident in his support of the unification of Wallachia and Moldavia, to form a buffer between Russia and the Ottoman Empire .
Of great concern to Eugenie was the rise of Prussia, whose military had expanded from 300,000 to 1,200,000 soldiers in only four years, from 1866 until 1870 . Such a growing power in the East posed a threat to both Ottoman and French authority. As France prepared for impending war, the empress claimed, “I felt it was my duty to maintain in the East, with the aid of two friendly nations” . It seems quite likely, then, that the Empress would have traveled to the Ottoman Empire in 1869 for diplomatic purposes; indeed, France would be at war by July of 1870 . Considering Ottoman military reforms introduced in 1869, which were expected to produce an army of 702,000 men, a renewed alliance with the Ottomans may have been the purpose of Eugenie’s visit .
Almost Turkish Recipes, http://almostturkish.blogspot.com/2008/11/sultans-delight-hnkar-beendi.html
Rachel Laudan. California Studies in Food and Culture, Volume 43 : Cuisine and Empire: Cooking in World History. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013), 132. Accessed October 26, 2014. ProQuest ebrary. Examples include lamb in
"Tomato". In Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. http://avoserv.library.fordham.edu/login?url=http://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/cupfood/tomato/0 (accessed November 4, 2014.)
Tülay Artan, “Aspects of the Ottoman Elite’s Food Consumption,” in Consumption Studies and the History of the Ottoman Empire, 1550-1922: An Introduction, ed. Donals Quataert (Albany: SUNY Press, 1999), 112.
 Almost Turkish Recipes.
 Encyclopedia BritannicaOnline, s.v. “Crimean War.”
 Memoirs of the Empress Eugenie, ed. Comte Maurice Fleury (London: D. Appleton and Company, 1920), 141, Google Books.
 Donald Quataert, The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 57.
 William Miller, The Ottoman Empire and Its Successors 1801-1927 (London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd., 1966), 243.
 Virginia H. Aksan, Ottoman Wars 1700-1870: An Empire Besieged (Harlow, UK: Pearson Education Limited, 2007), 478.
 Memoirs of the Empress Eugenie, 141.
 Encyclopedia BritannicaOnline, s.v. “Franco-German War.”
 Aksan, 478.
Zongzi (粽子) is a traditional Chinese food. It consists of sticky or glutinous rice which is wrapped in bamboo leaves, then steamed or boiled. Recipes are passed down through generations, as is the skill of neatly wrapping the rice with bamboo, and families will often all help out with the preparation of this food. Fillings for zongzi vary in different regions of China. For example, in southern China, zongzi is savory, and filled with shredded pork or chicken, salted duck egg, taro, or shiitake mushrooms. Zongzi in northern China usually contain jujube, preserved fruit, taro, cooked peanuts, or tapioca. These fillings are sweet, and thus zongzi is eaten as a dessert. The shape also varies from region to region; northern zongzi are tetrahedral, while the southern variety are conical .
Zongzi are most commonly wrapped in bamboo leaves, but sometimes lotus leaves, maize leaves, banana leaves, or other types are used instead. Each different type of leaf, though not eaten as a part of the meal, gives a unique flavor to the rice, as well as a distinct scent. Rice is another staple in this recipe; sticky rice, specifically, is always used . Peanuts are just one of many potential fillings, as previously mentioned. However, peanuts are extremely popular in China, and the country is one of the top producers of peanuts in the world today, so this ingredient warranted inclusion.
Zongzi’s recipe is deeply ingrained in China’s history and cultural practices. Not only is it a staple treat in homes across China and Southeast Asia, it is also integral to Duanwujie (端午节), the Chinese Dragon Boat Festival. Traditionally, the annual festival’s most celebratory component has been racing different villages’ colorful boats resembling dragons against each other . In addition, preparing and eating zongzi during the festival complements the races by connecting the Chinese people with their rich heritage and age-old traditions.
The origin of Zongzi’s association with the festival may date back at least as far as the Zhou Dynasty (c. 1046-256 BCE). The earliest account of Zongzi’s connection with Duanwujie maintains that the festival honors Wu Zixu (伍子胥), a senior politician of the Wu kingdom living during the Spring and Autumn period (770 - 476 BCE). Wu Zixu warned the King of Wu of the impending threat the King of Yue imposed on the kingdom. Believing Wu aimed to sabotage him, the King forced him to commit suicide and had his body thrown in the Yangtze River.  It is said that people raced their boats to his body and threw zongzi dumplings in to save it from the mouths of fish. Another theory for the origin of the festival may be to commemorate the poet Qu Yuan (屈原) of the Warring States Period, who like Wu Zixu, attempted to protect his state from attacks. However, he was banished by his wrathful king and threw himself into Miluo River in anguish. Again, people felt compassion for him and hurled zongzi into the river to protect his body from nibbling fish .
Although Zongzi is a traditional Chinese food, many variations of these rice dumplings are eaten in countries throughout the world, especially in other east Asian countries. The Vietnamese wrap rice dumplings in banana leaves, making round dumplings to represent the heavens and square dumplings to represent the earth. Together they symbolize the unity of the two, and are eaten at the Dragon Boat Festival to pray for good weather and a fruitful harvest. Sweet versions that include coconut, taro, black bean, and pachyrhizus are eaten during the rainy season. The Japanese wrap milled rice flour in bamboo leaves in a cylinder shape, while in North Korea “wheel cakes” are made by boiling and smashing Artemisia leaves and kneading them with rice flour to make a “wheel” shape. In the Philippines, people make and eat long, cylindrical rice dumplings to celebrate Christmas. 
 Wu, Annie. "Zongzi." ChinaHighlights. October 8, 2014. Accessed November 11, 2014. http://www.chinahighlights.com/festivals/zongzi.htm.
 "Festival Food: Rice Glue Ball, Zongzi and Moon Cake." Confucius Institute Online. February 20, 2010. Accessed November 11, 2014. http://food.chinesecio.com/en/article/2010-02/20/content_108978.htm.
 Yuan, Haiwang. "Dragon Boat Festival." In Berkshire Encyclopedia of China: Modern and Historic Views of the World's Newest and Oldest Global Power, Vol. 2. (Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire Publishing, 2009), 638.
 "Eng Suey Sun, of Taishan, Guangdong." Eng Suey Sun, of Taishan, Guangdong. Accessed November 11, 2014. http://freepages.family.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~chinesesurname/sueysun.html#Sui.
 Yuan 640
 "Zongzi (rice Dumplings) in Various Countries and Regions." Cultural China. Accessed November 11, 2014. http://kaleidoscope.cultural-china.com/en/8Kaleidoscope4832.html.
Pasteles are a traditional Puerto Rican recipe, and a cherished dish among the Puerto Rican people. The masa, or the dough, is typically made of grated green banana, yautia, green plantain, and calabazas. This dough is filled with a meat stew, typically containing some combination of pork, ham, achiote oil, onion, cilantro, tomato sauce, garbanzo beans, olives, and pimentos. The dough and meat filling are wrapped up in a banana leaf and tied with string, then cooked in boiling water. Alternatively, they can be frozen at this point for later use. When cooked, the banana leaf is unwrapped and the delicious cooked dough filled with meat is eaten. They are usually served with a side of other holiday dishes, such as arros con gandules, or rice with pigeon peas. Versions of this dish exist in the cuisines of many Latin American and Pacific countries, in many cases the ingredients differ slightly, and the dish goes by a different name. Versions of the pastele are found in the Venezuela (where they are called hallacas) Mexico (called tamales), the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Colombia, Trinidad, and Hawaii. The ingredients of pasteles bring together a diverse range of ingredients with origins from around the world, but the roots of this recipe are reflected by the ingredients characteristic to Latin American cuisine.
Pasteles are believed to have been created by the American Taíno Native American tribe, which originated around Venezuela. Christopher Columbus came into contact with this tribe when he sailed to the Americas. When he attempted to establish the first American colony in Hispaniola, relations between the natives and the colonists quickly deteriorated. The colonists wanted to exploit the land for mining and resources, which hindered the natives from growing food.
However, pasteles’ origins can also be traced back to African slaves in America who brought things like bananas as well as cooking techniques like frying, with them from Africa, which quickly spread throughout Puerto Rico. It was a combination of ingredients and cooking techniques from Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans that eventually led to the creation of pasteles.
Pasteles are a treasured holiday dish in Puerto Rico. They are so beloved that A National Festival of Puerto Rican Pasteles is held every November in the city of Orocovis. The complex process of making pasteles is an important holiday tradition. Because the process is so labor-intensive, some families today order the pasteles from caterers or buy them from a neighbor who is dedicated to the tradition. However, the families that do make pasteles themselves gather in the kitchen and form an assembly line. Each person has a job that has to be done hundreds of times to make a large quantity of pasteles. According to Roberto Múcaro Borrero, a Puerto Rican who is in touch with his culture’s traditions, “Even today, making pasteles is still a family affair, for example, your Mom might grate the yucca or guineo, while an aunt will prepare the masa, grandma could be seasoning the meat to perfection, and a cousin can literally wrap the whole process up nicely.” In Puerto Rico, the Christmas celebrations extend from Thanksgiving to January 6, Three Kings Day, so when a family gathers together to make this dish, they sometimes prepare hundreds of pasteles to last through the holiday season. The family recipe for pasteles is passed from mother to daughter in a tradition that has lasted hundreds of years. Pasteles were an important part of Puerto Rican culture hundreds of years ago and continue to contribute to Puerto Rican tradition today.
 Irizary, Doris. “Pasteles a Traditional Latin American Dish” The Examiner. 19 Dec 2011. Web. 09 Nov 2014.
 Poole, Robert. "What Became of the TaÃno?" Smithsonian. N.p., Oct. 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2014.
 Festival Nacional Del Pastel. 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 9 Nov. 2014. <http://www.festivaldelpastel.org/inicio-1.html>.
 Roberto Borrero, “Pasteles are Taíno,” La Diva Latina. 2008. Web. 09 Nov 2014.
 Ramirez, Deborah. "Holidays Tied to Pasteles." Sun Sentinel. 9 Dec. 2010. Web. 08 Nov. 2014.
Mole Poblano, a traditional dish of Mexico, is long ingrained in the history of the region we today call Central America. Mole Poblano is a dark red-brown sauce usually served with turkey or chicken. Although it contains approximately twenty five ingredients, Mole Poblano can be prepared in nearly infinite numbers of ways. Of the many different ingredients found in the dish, the main ones are chili peppers, chocolate, plantains, almonds, pumpkin seeds, cinnamon sticks, anise, and cloves. These eight ingredients are among the most interesting ingredients found in Mole Poblano, not only because they are essential to the dish, but because they have long complex histories that date back to the ancient, pre-Columbian empires of Mesoamerica.
The origins of mole poblano may be found in the sophisticated thousand-year-old Persian cuisine which was adopted by Moslems in Baghdad and subsequently spread to other Moslem cities, flourishing from the eighth century onward. A southern portion of the Iberian Peninsula, termed al-Andalus, also came under Moslem control in the eighth century, resulting in the spread of many non-native foods and crops to the region. Over hundreds of years popular dishes from al-Andalus were adopted by nearby Christian Europe, sometimes substituting one ingredient for another within recipes. As Spain gained territory in America during the 16th century, their cuisine traveled with them, including that which had originally been adopted from the Moslems. Among these was what would become mole poblano, created through the replacement of some of the usual Spanish ingredients with ones native to America .
In addition to its possible Persian origins, there are a number of myths and legends surrounding the creation of mole poblano, One such legend claims that in the 16th century, the archbishop made an unannounced visit to the Convent of Santa Rosa in Puebla de los Angeles. Panicking, because they had nothing to serve him, the nuns prayed for an angel to inspire them for a dish. They mixed various types of chiles with spices, day-old bread, nuts, chocolate, and approximately 20 other ingredients. After hours of boiling, this concoction reduced to the rich mole sauce we are familiar with today. The nuns killed an old turkey, which was the only meat they had, and poured the sauce over it. Ignorant of the circumstances surrounding the dishes creation, the archbishop fawned over the plate in front of him .
Chef and author Diana Kennedy, on the other hand, asserts that it was 16th century monk Fray Pascual who was preparing a banquet for the archbishop, when a sudden gust of wind swept a tray of spices over turkeys that were cooking in cazuelas over the fire .
Rachel Laudan, however, points out that after the Mexican Revolution in the 20th century,, politicians and intellectuals turned to food as a formative national tradition to create a sense of national unity . They concentrated on the Nahuatl roots of the word mole, which stems from the Nahuatl word “milli,” meaning “sauce” or “concoction” .
Mole is ubiquitous in modern day Mexico. Though mole comes in numerous varieties, varying in color from white to yellow or green, the dark brown mole poblano features alongside turkey in mole poblano de guajolote, the national dish of Mexico. While mole may be eaten on ordinary days for any meal, many Mexicans serve it during holidays and special occasions, like Día de Muertos and weddings . In Puebla, the dish is a symbol of regional pride. Every year on Cinco de Mayo, the commemoration of the Battle of Puebla, Poblanos celebrate Mexico’s victory over Napoleon III’s French army with a feast that includes mole poblano. In much the same way as the victory, the dish remains a source of regional and national unity .
When analyzing the recipe of mole poblano, it is quite evident that at the surface, this concoction of different spices, herbs, and delicacies is a defining cultural staple of modern day Mexico. However, upon deeper inspection, one can visualize the diverse cultures that each of the ingredients in mole poblano represents. Yes, the combination of the ingredients is unique to Puebla despite its disputed creation and origin, but each ingredient is quite the opposite. Each ingredient is a symbol of the culture of the civilization that produced it and can be used to trace the influence of these societies across the globe. It is quite miraculous that ingredients found on opposite sides of the world could come together to eventually become the national dish of Mexico.
 Mole Poblano: Mexico’s National Food Dish. Mexonline.com. Web. 8 Nov. 2014.
 Kennedy, Diana. The Essential Cuisines of Mexico. New York: Harper and Row, 1972. pp 199-200. Print.
 Laudan, Rachel. The Mexican Kitchen’s Islamic Connection. Saudi Aramco World. Aramco Services Company. May/June 2004. 8 Nov. 2014.
 Barclay, Eliza. “Mexican Mole has Many Flavors, Many Mothers.” NPR. National Public Radio, Inc., 18 Jan. 2013. Web. 8 Nov. 2014
 Graber, Karen Hursh. “Demystifying Mole, Mexico’s National Dish” Mexconnect. 1 Jan. 2003. Web. 8 Nov. 2014
“A reaping-hook fits my hand better than a governor’s sceptre; I’d rather have my fill of gazpacho’ than be subject to the misery of a meddling doctor…” Despite its humble implications in Miguel de Cervantes’s Don Quixote, gazpacho has a long and complicated history that has graced the palettes of both the upper and lower echelons of societies all over the world. Drawing from the culinary traditions of Arab and Roman culture, and the introduction of New World ingredients, gazpacho became a standard Spanish dish first in the province of Andalusia. Gazpacho is a soup, traditionally served cold, that is a blended mixture of olive oil, pepper, vinegar, onions, garlic, bread, and water. With the introduction of the tomato and cucumber from the New World and Asia respectively, the refreshing vinegar and olive oil-based soup evolved into a decidedly Spanish dish. The presence of the Moors in Spain until 1492 influenced the cuisine of the region, including gazpacho. The name “gazpacho” is derived from the Mozarabic, (Spanish Christians living under Moorish rule), word caspa meaning “fragments,” referencing the small pieces of bread which were ripped up and served with the soup.
Andalusian gazpacho’s relatively recent popularity with its incorporation of New World ingredients soared when Eugenia de Montijo, the wife of Emperor Napoleon III, introduced the recipe to France in the nineteenth century. However, gazpacho’s complex history suggests it had a variety of other influential versions which contributed to the internationally-renowned Andalusian gazpacho. For example, gazpacho was not always necessarily served cold nor as a liquid salad. In Juan de la Mata’s Arte de reposteria, published in 1747, gazpacho was known as capon de galera in which bread crusts were soaked in water and placed in a sauce of anchovy bones, garlic, vinegar, sugar, salt, and olive oil, until the bread softened and various fruits and vegetables were added. In addition, one of gazpacho’s original forms with bread, garlic, olive oil, vinegar, salt, and water which was then pounded in a mortar, had been served hot during the winter, a tradition deriving from the Arab occupation of Spain from the eighth to the thirteenth centuries. Hints of Roman culinary tradition also appear in the evolution of gazpacho, given that the use of vinegar in gazpachos served cold like the popular Andalusian gazpacho, refer to the Roman tradition of adding vinegar to food for refreshment during warm weather.
Due to the myriad of possible combinations of ingredients and Spain’s widespread trade network, gazpacho was a dish that faced no social or class barriers. “In Andalusia, during the summer, a bowl of gazpacho is commonly ready in every house of an evening, and is partaken of by every person who comes in.” Olive oil, vinegar, garlic, and bread were available to the common people from antiquity. These ingredients were staples, if not the entirety, of humble Spanish cooking from the Middle Ages through the Early Modern period. For the lower classes of Andalusian society, New World ingredients were not readily available for a time. For many, just a simple recipe of gazpacho prompted them to say, “Buenas migas hay,” or “there are good crumbs,” emphasizing the “common poverty of their fare.” Spain’s extensive trade connections with its colonies in the New World allowed the tomato to reach the lower classes of society and become a foundational ingredient in this dish. Likewise, cucumbers, lacking in high nutritional value, did not reach the common people until the latter part of the early modern period as the ingredient was not hearty enough to warrant becoming a priority in the typical early modern kitchen.
Besides its prevalence as a common tasty dish, gazpacho was used for medicinal purposes as well. The blended salad was believed to be effective in treating stomach issues. One of the earliest appearances of the recipe is, in fact, a sort of early modern prescription in a guidebook. The basic combinations of the ingredients were seen as an effective tool to “conserve health, free oneself from the staunching of blood in the belly, [...] soften the intestines, [and] prevent putrefaction.” Although medicinal properties are no longer attributed to the meal, gazpacho still has a pervasive presence in the modern world. The New York Times article, “Gazpacho: Not Hot and Not a Bother,” presented the traditional dish as a refreshing choice for hot summery weather. Gazpacho has also served as an important plot point in popular television shows including The Simpsons, Psych, Red Dwarf, and Chowder. The cold blended soup seems to be an oddity in today’s culture, but the variability and simplicity of this recipe makes it a thriving survivor of the early modern period.
 Miguel Cervantes, “Don Quixote Chapter LIII,” Omegasources.com, Accessed November 9, 2014, http://www.omegasources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=341754.
 Clifford A. Wright, “Food History: Gazpacho,” Cliffordawright.com, Accessed November 9, http://www.cliffordawright.com/caw/food/entries/display.php/id/64/.
 Alan Davidson, The Oxford Companion to Food (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 333.
 Richard Ford, A Hand-book for Travellers in Spain: And Readers at Home: Describing the Country and Cities, the Natives and Their Manners, the Antiquities, Religion, Legends, Fine Arts, Literature, Sports, and Gastronomy: With Notices on Spanish History. Vol. 1, (London: J. Murray, 1845), 68-69.
 Thomas de Salazar, Tratado Del Uso De La Quina, (Madrid: En La Imprenta De La Viuda De Ibarra, 1791), 297.
 Vicente de Lardizabal, “Catalog Record: Consideraciones Politico-Medicas Sobre La... | Hathi Trust Digital Library,” Catalog.Hathitrust.Org, 2014, http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009276487.
 Mark Bittman, “Gazpacho: Not Hot And Not A Bother,” Nytimes.com, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/08/03/magazine/bittman-gazpacho-the-simple-chilled-soup.html?_r=0.